POWERED BY NATURE: A GUIDE TO NORWAY,
THE WORLD'S LEADING EV MARKET

NOW

What does the Norwegian EV market look like today?

Volume


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Sales


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Ownership


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Distribution


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Market Shares


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Range

Norwegian EV drivers quickly learn that their car’s rated NEDC range and actual real-world range rarely match, especially in a cold, mountainous regions like Norway. Below are the real- world range estimates for selected electric cars as provided by the OEMs themselves, at the request of the Norwegian EV association.



Citroën Berlingo
Peugeot Partner
Tesla Model S 85 kW
Tesla Model S 60 kW
Renault Twizy
VW e-Golf
VW e-up!
Renault Zoe
Ford Focus Electric
Renault Kangoo Z.E.
BMW i3
Buddy BAES
Nissan LEAF
Peugeot iOn
Mitsubishi i-MiEV
Citroën C-ZERO
0
120
240
360
480
 Min range
 Max range

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Infrastructure

Prior to 2008, EV charging infrastructure was scarce. From 2009, with the simultaneous launch of Transnova’s national EV infrastructure program and Oslo’s local program, charging points quickly became commonplace across Norway. The vast majority of Norway’s current charging points are regular schuko outlets. As the rest of Europe, Norway will gradually adopt the Mode 3 Type 2 standard for new charging points going forward.

The first CHAdeMO fast charging points went operational in 2011. Today, there are 79 operational CHAdeMO chargers in Norway. Future fast charging points are expected to me a mixture of CHAdeMO and CCS, as well as AC 22kW.

Total charging points



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HISTORY

How did Norway become the world’s leading EV market?

Norway has what is probably the world’s best incentives for Zero Emission Vehicles, and a correspondingly the world’s highest number of electric cars per capita by a wide margin. However, there was never a grand design or strategy behind this outcome. Rather, it is the result of many small measures adopted over the years to support a growing Norwegian EV industry and to reduce emissions from road transportation. In sum, these incentives create the world’s best EV marketplace, but the road here was never straightforward.

Below are some of the highs and lows:

FUTURE

Norway’s EV future: Cars are here to stay,
   but emissions are not

Norway’s cross political agreement on climate from 2012 sets an important milestone on the road to a carbon-neutral transport sector: By 2020, the fleet-average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars in Norway should be 85 grams per kilometer. This is 10 grams below the intended 2020 EU target of 95 grams. For comparison, the fleet-average emissions in 2012 were 130 grams per kilometer.

In order to achieve this ambitious goal, there is no doubt that a fair amount of electricity will be needed in the transport sector. Without Zero Emission Vehicles and plug-in hybrids, the 85 gram goal is simply not attainable. Therefore, nudging consumers to buy low-emission cars will be the key to achieving the 2020 target.

Norway has a car import tax which is calculated on the basis of a car’s CO2 emissions, NOx emissions, effect and weight. By gradually tuning the system to award cars with low emissions, and penalize cars with higher emissions, the import tax will play a vital role in order to make low-emission cars attractive to consumers, and thereby achieving the 85 gram goal.

Scenarios 2020

Below are six scenarios which model the Norwegian car sales up to 2020, and estimates the fleet-average emissions. The scenarios show that the 85 gram target is realistic and within reach, provided that OEMs and politicians work together to create good products and good framework conditions.

Norway is on track to do our part – and we are optimistic on behalf of a future with cars, powered by nature, without emissions.

Scenarios 2020

Average emissions

Emissions from new cars in Norway – historic and projected

Purchase price development for selected cars in Norway, 2011-2014

BEVs are completely tax exempt. Same base priced used for all years to show effect of taxation changes

BEVs and PHEVs on the road

Number of cars in 1000
 BEVs
 PHEVs
1
Fossile relapse: 111 g/km
What will happen if we discount BEVs and PHEVs altogehter?
2
Slow introduction: 91 g/km
How far can we get with optimization of combustion engines, and only a slow increase in the share of EVs?
3
Balanced introduction:
85 g/km
With a balanced growth of both BEVs and PHEvs, how many is needed to reach the 85 gr/km target?
4
Slow introduction: 91 g/km
If BEV technology is mainly reserved for smaller cars, how many PHEVs are needed to reach the 85 gr/km target?
5
BEV dominance: 76g/km
How far can we get if BEVs capture significant market shares, at the expence of PHEVs as well as traditional cars?
6
Plug-in dominance: 67g/km
How far can a strong sales growth for both BEVs and PHEVs take us?
PROJECTS

A few of many Norwegian e-mobility initiatives

Green Car

Green Car

Green Car ("Grønn Bil" in Norwegian) works to get 200.000 Norwegians to buy a car with a plug by the year 2020.

In order to achieve this goal, Green Car provides hands-on support to corporate and municipal fleets, helping them to successfully introduce EVs where they can match operational and financial requirements. The project also works with OEMs and importers to ensure sufficient supply in the market place, as well as with infrastructure providers.

For more information, please see www.gronnbil.no

ZeroCat battery-electric ferry

The ZeroCat is an aluminum car ferry developed in association with Norled. The lightweight construction reduces energy consumption to less than half of conventional ferries, while using energy from the power grid in combination with smart-grid components and onboard batteries totally removes the use of fossil fuels during operations. Zerocat’s builder is Fjellstrand.

The ferry will enter in to service on January 1st, 2015 on the E39 Lavik-Oppedal conncetion, one of Norway’s most trafficated road ferry crossing.

For more information, see www.fjellstrand.no

NOBIL

NOBIL is an open, publicly owned database for charging stations that allows everyone to build services using standardized data free of charge. NOBIL is easy to use, and capable of real-time updates on availability. It is owned by the governmental entity Transnova maintained by the Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association.

Information is collected from EV-users, charging stations owners and operators and other contributors. Collection and verification of data is prioritized to secure accurate and reliable information for EV-users in need of electricity.

NOBIL’s role is to gather information and communicate it effectively to third parties. NOBIL is not instrumental for operations (booking and payment), only for the collection and reporting of data. NOBIL does not interfere into the business of the operators and owners of the charging stations.

In 2012 the database underwent major improvements to prepare it for fast chargers and real-time updates. The close ties between the Nordic countries have generated a project set to expand the database for Nordic use. Other interested countries can adopt the database, with the requirement that they provide non-discriminatory data registration of publicly accessible chargers for their country.

For more information, see www.nobil.no



ZERO rally

The Zero Rally is an annual rally for zero- or low emissions cars – electric cars, hydrogen cars, plug-in hybrids, and biofuels vehicles. The rally showcases zero- or low emission cars as practical, user friendly and fun alternatives to traditional and polluting fossil cars. It follows different routes each year. In 2009 and 2010, the rally ran from Oslo to Stavanger, the 2011 version ran from Hamar to Oslo, while the 2012 rally crossed the border from Østersund in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway. The rally took a break in 2013, but will be back in force in 2014. International participants are most welcome.

For more information, please see www.zerorally.com

Taxi Trondheim

Are BEVs suitable as Taxis? A joint collaboration between the taxi operators Trøndertaxi and Stjørdal taxi, the utility company NTE, the municipality of Trondheim and Transnova aims to find the answer. In a two-year project running from 2011 to 2013, 6 Nissan LEAFs will be deployed in regular Taxi service in the Trondheim area. Supported by 3 fast chargers, the aim is to uncover practical and economical benefits and limitations associated with EV taxis.

The project also cooperates with Nissan in order to secure log data from the 6 LEAFs, which will provide detailed information on energy consumption in different topologies and climatical conditions. Some preliminary conclusions that have emerged from the project are:

  • Most customers, drivers and owners are very happy with the EV taxi experience
  • The taxies are most energy efficient in the city. Longer, high-speed trips, such as to the airport, increases energy usage
  • Log data suggest that the drivers adapt to the car over time, and develop a significantly more energy-efficient driving style
  • The average annual driving length per car is 33.000 km
  • Under the project conditions, EV taxis are not commercially profitable yet. More strategically placed fast chargers, as well as better trip management from the operations center are significant recommendations.

Want to know more?

Visit Transnova’s overview of projects here:
http://www.transnova.no/prosjekter/

PAPERS

EVS27 papers

Norway: Lessons learned from a global EV success story, Ole Henrik Hannisdahl, Håvard Maggen Malvik, Guro Bøe Wensaas, Grønn Bil ("Green Car")

Incentives and infrastructures - Crucial elements in the build-up of Norways EV fleet, Tom Nørbech , Transnova

Development of charging station data services for new user groups, Hans Havard Kvisle , Ladestasjoner AS

Norway's Electric Vehicle deployment success. A historical review including plans for fast charging stations covering all of the country - by 2015. Harald N. Rostvik , Bergen School of Architecture

Norwegian electric car user experiences, Petter Haugneland , Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association

H2moves Scandinavia, Steffen Moeller-Holst, SINTEF

Electric Vehicles in urban europe, Marianne Molmen , City of Oslo

Other relevant publications

Electromobility in Norway - experiences and opportunities with Electric Vehicles, Erik Figenbaum, Marika Kolbenstvedt, TØI